M109


Howitzer,155mm,Self-Propelled (M109)

The M109 is a self-propelled, semi-mobile, tracked and armored Howitzer Artillery Unit with a 155mm cannon, that was introduced into service in 1963. There have been over 7,700 units produced and are still active in service with over 40 countries and is in current production with deliveries scheduled through 2018 to the U.S. Army. The M109 is highly upgradable from its original capabilities and the earlier versions can be upgraded through to the M109A5+ specification. Newer versions, M109A6 and beyond are referred to as the Paladin and offer significant automation and advanced capabilities including fully autonomous battlefield mobility. The M109 was dubbed as NATO's Universal Mobile Howitzer.

Howitzer,155mm,Self-Propelled (M109)
M109 Technical and Parts Manuals (33 Manuals)

 Alternate Reference: M109 TM, M109 TB, M109 MWO, M109 SMI, M109 PMCS, M109 Specs, M109 Parts


12 Pages

MWO-9-1290-365-20-1

MODIFICATION OF M93 PALADIN MUZZLE VELOCITY SYSTEM

MODIFICATION WORK ORDER


12 Pages

MWO-9-2350-311-20-2

HOWITZER, MEDIUM SELF-PROPELLED; 155MM, M109A2, M109A3, M109A4 AND M109A5

MODIFICATION WORK ORDER


17 Pages

MWO-9-2350-314-20-1

STOWAGE BRACKETS FOR NIGHT VISION DEVICE (NVD) AND M45 PERISCOPE; MEDIUM M109A6 SP HOWITZER

MODIFICATION WORK ORDER


13 Pages

MWO-9-2350-314-20-10

MODIFICATION OF HOWITZER, MEDIUM, SELF-PROPELLED: 155MM, M109A6

MODIFICATION WORK ORDER


10 Pages

MWO-9-2350-314-20-9

MODIFICATION OF HOWITZER, MEDIUM, SELF-PROPELLED: 155MM, M109A6

MODIFICATION WORK ORDER


52 Pages

TB-9-1000-234-13

EXERCISING OF RECOIL MECHANISMS AND EQUILIBRATORS

TECHNICAL BULLETIN


6 Pages

TB-9-2300-403-45

CONTINENTAL MODELS AV-1790 AND AO-895 AND GMC MODELS 6V53/6V53T AND 8V71T SERIES ENGINES: REPAIR OF ALUMINUM OIL COOLERS

TECHNICAL BULLETIN


20 Pages

TB-9-2350-314-23-2-1

PALADIN DIGITAL FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM (PDFCS)

TECHNICAL BULLETIN; WARRANTY PROGRAM


266 Pages

TM-9-1200-215-34-P

AUTOMATIC FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM (AFCS)

TECHNICAL MANUAL; DIRECT SUPPORT AND GENERAL SUPPORT MAINTENANCE MANUAL


344 Pages

TM-9-1240-400-34-P

TELESCOPE; PANORAMIC: M115, ELBOW: M139, MOUNT: M138 AND M137

TECHNICAL MANUAL; DIRECT SUPPORT AND GENERAL SUPPORT MAINTENANCE MANUAL


590 Pages

TM-9-1240-401-34-P

TELESCOPE MOUNT M146: M118A2 AND M118A3; TELESCOPE MOUNT M145: M145A1; PANORAMIC TELESCOPE: M117 AND M117A2; FIRE CONTROL QUADRANT: M15; PERISCOPE: M42

TECHNICAL MANUAL; DIRECT SUPPORT AND GENERAL SUPPORT MAINTENANCE MANUAL


192 Pages

TM-9-1290-262-24-P

AIMING CIRCLE, M2A2, W/E

TECHNICAL MANUAL; UNIT, DIRECT SUPPORT,AND GENERAL SUPPORT MAINTENANCE MANUAL


18 Pages

TM-9-1290-347-34P

POST, AIMING: M1A2

TECHNICAL MANUAL; DIRECT SUPPORT AND GENERAL SUPPORT MAINTENANCE REPAIR PARTS AND SPECIAL TOOLS LIST


334 Pages

TM-9-1290-365-24-P

PALADIN MUZZLE VELOCITY SYSTEM M93 UPGRADED

TECHNICAL MANUAL; UNIT, DIRECT SUPPORT, AND GENERAL SUPPORT MAINTENANCE MANUAL INCLUDING REPAIR PARTS AND SPECIAL TOOLS LIST


775 Pages

TM-9-2350-311-10

HOWITZER, MEDIUM, SELF-PROPELLED, 155MM; M109A2, M109A3, M109A4 AND M109A5

TECHNICAL MANUAL; OPERATOR’S MANUAL


26 Pages

TM-9-2350-311-10-HR

HOWITZER, MEDIUM, SELF-PROPELLED, 155MM; M109A2 AND M109A3

HAND RECEIPT; COVERING CONTENTS OF COMPONENTS OF END ITEM (COEI), BASIC ISSUE ITEMS (Bll), AND ADDITIONAL AUTHORIZATION LIST (AAL)


1275 Pages

TM-9-2350-311-20-1

HOWITZER, MEDIUM, SELF-PROPELLED, 155MM; M109A2, M109A3, M109A4 AND M109A5

TECHNICAL MANUAL; UNIT MAINTENANCE MANUAL FOR HULL, POWERPLANT, DRIVE CONTROLS, TRACKS, SUSPENSION, AND ASSOCIATED COMPONENTS


828 Pages

TM-9-2350-311-20-2

HOWITZER, MEDIUM, SELF-PROPELLED, 155MM; M109A2, M109A3, M109A4 AND M109A5

TECHNICAL MANUAL; UNIT MAINTENANCE MANUAL FOR CAB, ARMAMENT, SIGHTING AND FIRE CONTROL, ELEVATING AND TRAVERSING SYSTEMS AND ASSOCIATED COMPONENTS


637 Pages

TM-9-2350-311-24P-1

HOWITZER, MEDIUM, SELF-PROPELLED, 155MM; M109A2, M109A3, M109A4 AND M109A5

TECHNICAL MANUAL; UNIT, DIRECT SUPPORT AND GENERAL SUPPORT MAINTENANCE REPAIR PARTS AND SPECIAL TOOLS LIST


480 Pages

TM-9-2350-311-24P-2

CAB, ARMAMENT, SIGHTING AND FIRE CONTROL, ELEVATING AND TRAVERSING SYSTEMS, AND ASSOCIATED COMPONENTS HOWITZER, MEDIUM, SELF-PROPELLED, 155MM

TECHNICAL MANUAL; UNIT, DIRECT SUPPORT AND GENERAL SUPPORT MAINTENANCE REPAIR PARTS AND SPECIAL TOOLS LIST


352 Pages

TM-9-2350-311-34-1

HULL, POWERPLANT, DRIVE CONTROLS, TRACKS, SUSPENSION, AND ASSOCIATED COMPONENTS: HOWITZER, MEDIUM, SELF-PROPELLED, 155MM

TECHNICAL MANUAL; DIRECT SUPPORT AND GENERAL SUPPORT MAINTENANCE MANUAL


552 Pages

TM-9-2350-311-34-2

CAB, ARMAMENT, SIGHTING AND FIRE CONTROL, ELEVATING AND TRAVERSING SYSTEMS AND ASSOCIATED COMPONENTS HOWITZER, MEDIUM, SELF-PROPELLED, 155MM

TECHNICAL MANUAL; DIRECT AND GENERAL SUPPORT MAINTENANCE MANUAL


5 Pages

TM-9-2350-311-PCL

HOWITZER, MEDIUM, SELF-PROPELLED, 155MM; M109A2, M109A3, M109A4 AND M109A5

COMBAT VEHICLE; PRE-COMBAT CHECKLIST


32 Pages

TM-9-2350-314-10-HR

HOWITZER, MEDIUM, SELF-PROPELLED, 155MM; M109A6

HAND RECEIPT; COVERING CONTENTS OF COMPONENT END ITEM (COEI), BASIC ISSUE ITEMS (BII), AND ADDITIONAL AUTHORIZATION LIST (AAL)


343 Pages

TM-9-2350-358-BD

HOWITZER, MEDIUM, SELF-PROPELLED, 155MM; M109A6

TECHNICAL MANUAL; OPERATOR’S, UNIT, AND DIRECT SUPPORT SUPPORT MAINTENANCE


160 Pages

TM-9-2520-234-34P

POWER TRAIN ASSEMBLY; ALLISON MODEL XTG411-2A

TECHNICAL MANUAL; DIRECT SUPPORT AND GENERAL SUPPORT MAINTENANCE REPAIR PARTS AND SPECIAL TOOLS LIST


323 Pages

TM-9-2520-234-35

POWER TRAIN ASSEMBLY; ALLISON MODEL XTG411-2A

TECHNICAL MANUAL; FIELD AND DEPOT MAINTENANCE MANUAL


288 Pages

TM-9-2815-202-24P

ENGINES, DIESEL WITH CONTAINERS; MODEL 7083–7391, 7083–7395 AND 7083–7396

TECHNICAL MANUAL; REPAIR PARTS AND SPECIAL TOOLS LIST


670 Pages

TM-9-2815-202-34

ENGINE, DIESEL W/CONTAINER: MODEL 7083-7395, 7083-7396, 7083-7398 AND 7083-7399

TECHNICAL MANUAL; DIRECT SUPPORT AND GENERAL SUPPORT MAINTENANCE


262 Pages

TM-9-2920-225-34

GENERATOR ASSEMBLY

TECHNICAL MANUAL; MAINTENANCE DIRECT AND GENERAL SUPPORT LEVEL


18 Pages

TM-9-2920-225-34P

GENERATOR, ENGINE ACCESSORY, PRESTOLITE MODEL AMA-5102UT, LEECE-NEVILLE MODELS 3002AC AND 3002AD

TECHNICAL MANUAL; DIRECT SUPPORT AND GENERAL SUPPORT MAINTENANCE REPAIR PARTS AND SPECIAL TOOLS LISTS


76 Pages

TM-9-2920-258-30-P

ALTERNATOR, 180 AMPERES, MODEL 5520AB

TECHNICAL MANUAL; DIRECT SUPPORT MAINTENANCE MANUAL


54 Pages

TM-9-6015

AIMING POST LIGHTS M14, M41 AND M43

TECHNICAL MANUAL

M109 Series - M109A5 - Key Characteristics

Production History

Crew

  • M109 - M109A4: Six (Commander, Gunner, 3 Loaders, Driver)
  • M109A5 - Five (Commander, Gunner, Assistant Gunner, Cannoneer, Driver)
  • M109A6 - Four (Commander, Gunner, Loader, Driver)

Dimensions

  • Length (Min - Gun Forward): 359 in (9.12 m)
  • Width: (Min) 124 in (3.15 m)
  • Height (Min): 143 in (3.62 m)
  • Weight (Min): 55,000 lb (24,948 kg)

Mobility

  • Engine: Detroit Diesel 8V-71T LHR, V8, Fuel Injected 2-stroke Diesel, Liquid Cooled
  • Transmission: Allison ATD-XTG, 4 Forward, and 2 Reverse Gears
  • Engine Power: 440hp (328kw)
  • Maximum Speed: 35mph (56km/h)
  • Maximum Range: 220miles (354km)
  • Fuel Capacity: 135gal (511 l)

Armament

  • Gun: 155mm M284 cannon / .50 Cal M2HB machine gun
  • Ammunition: 34 pcs / 500 pcs
  • Turret: M182 mount
  • Rate of Fire: 4 rounds/min

Biography of the M109

The M109 was introduced in 1963, as a heavy self-propelled artillery unit designed to be deployed with its companion support vehicle the M992 Field Artillery Ammunition Supply Vehicle (FAASV). The original manufacturers were General Motors (Cadillac Motor Car Division), General Motors (Allison) and Chrysler Corporation from the years 1962-1969. In 1974, Bowen-McLaughlin-York (BMY) joined the list of manufacturers. A medium howitzer version, the M108 was introduced originally but was later canceled to minimize duplicity in the U.S. Fleet. The M109 has proved itself in combat in many theaters over the years and has been adopted as the mobile artillery platform of choice by over 40 nations.

The original versions were semi-mobile, where communications cable were required to be laid between the battery and command vehicles. Later versions utilize radio data communications, eliminating the hard-wired requirement and allowing the battery to be fully mobile. Improvements to the powertrain, armor, fire control and cannon have been incrementally developed and the vehicle is still in current production for the U.S. Army in the M109A7 configuration, which introduced many common components to the M2/M3 Bradley Fighting Vehicle, to improve supportability and mobility while automating many systems.

The M109’s power pack is located at the front right of the hull, with the driver section located at the front left. The turret is located over the rear section and can rotate 360°, with the main gun fitted into the forward panel. The commander’s cupola can hold a .50 or .30 machine gun if needed. It uses 7 double-tired road wheels to a hull side. The drive sprocket is located at front with track idler at the rear and no return rollers are used. For entry and exit of the vehicle, the crew can use the small door located at the rear, side panels, roof hatches and the cover over the driver compartment. The main guns have large muzzle brakes and are clamped to the hull when traveling. The crew was made of six members; driver, commander, 2 gunners and 2 loaders. The number of crew members has decreased throughout the years, as upgrades have come out.

The M109A6 version has been the standard for a few years and was named the Paladin after the inclusion of the Paladin Digital Fire-Control System (PDFCS). The A6 had numerous improvements, including secure radio, onboard diagnostics, and improved armor and powertrain. The current M109A7 is a major step forward for the M109 and includes a new chassis taken from the M2/M3 Bradley Fighting Vehicle, as well as a new power system, to drive the fully-digital electronics of the new A7.

There is an active industry both by the OEM, BAE Systems, and many independent Defence contractors, for the design and installation of M109 Upgrades. In recent years, the U.S.A. and other Countries have contracted BAE and other Defence contractors, to provide support, repair, RESET, overhaul and upgrade of M109 fleets, both from older versions to newer versions, as well as to country-specific configurations. A variety of upgrades are available for most systems of the M109, some of which have been adopted by the U.S. Army, but many of which, although evaluated for adoption, are now used exclusively outside of the U.S.A. and BAE.

M109 Variants
M108

M108 - Light 105mm SP Howitzer

Light Self-Propelled 105mm Howitzer

NSN 2350-00-440-8810


This version had the T-196 development designation. It was designed at the same time as the M109. The weapon mounts a 105mm M103 howitzer with a small fume extractor but no muzzle brake. It was only produced in 1962 and 1963. The M108 is in service in Brazil, Spain, Taiwan and Turkey.

M109

M109 - 105mm SP Howitzer

Self-Propelled 105mm Howitzer

NSN 2350-00-440-8811


The original production version of the M109 developed from the T-196, introduced in 1963. Fitted with a short (23-caliber) 105mm M126 howitzer with muzzle brake and a distinctive large "lazy D"-shaped fume extractor. Maximum M126 projectile range of 15,914 yd (14,600 m). The vehicle carried 28 rounds.

M109A1

M109A1 - 155mm SP Howitzer

Self-Propelled 155mm Howitzer

NSN 2350-00-485-9662


The M109A1 mounts the longer M185 155mm gun and incorporates elevation, traversing and suspension improvements. It can fire a high-explosive round 19,800 yd (18,100 m). The M109A1 weighs 53,070 lb (24,070 kg) fully loaded and is 29ft 8-in (9.04-m) long including the barrel. The first M109A1 conversion kits were produced in 1972. The first converted from standard vehciles became operational in 1973.

M109A2

M109A2 - 155mm SP Howitzer

Self-Propelled 155mm Howitzer

NSN 2350-01-031-0586


The M109A2 is a new production weapon which incorporated 27 mid-life improvements to the M109A1. The M109A2 variant howitzer featured many system improvements, including a redesigned rammer, improved recoil mechanism, engine operation warning devices, re-designed hatch and door latches, improved hydraulic system and larger turret bustle carrying 36 155-mm projectiles. Production began in 1978. About 850 were produced for the U.S. Army and Army National Guard. The M109A2 is still in current production under a technology transfer agreement between the U.S.A. and Samsung in South Korea, the K55 and K55A1. Since this collaboration, Samsung Techwin, or now Hanwha Techwin, has developed its own Howitzer, the K9. The K9 utilizes many parts that are similar or identical in design to the M109.

M109A3

M109A3 - 155mm SP Howitzer

Self-Propelled - 155mm SP Howitzer

NSN 2350-01-031-8851


The M109A3 is a depot converted M109A1 incorporating the 27 mid-life improvements. The M109A3 had an improved M178 cannon mounting, boresight alignment driver and selected RAM and safety kits, which included a fuel system air purge, driver's instrument panel, bustle/rack, propellant stowage, torsion bar, counter-recoil buffer, and upper recoil cylinder. Introduced in 1980, most of the global M109 fleet were retrofitted to the M109A3 designation standard. The performance of the M109A3 is identical to the M109A2.

M109A4

M109A4 - 155mm SP Howitzer

Self-Propelled 155mm Howitzer

NSN 2350-01-277-5770


The M109A4 designation was used for the 737 U.S. Army Reserve Howitzers re-fitted under the NBC and reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) program completed in 1993. The system upgrades included in this specfic re-fit included:

  • 180A electrical charging system
  • Vane-axial fan assembly increasing cooling capacity and reliability
  • Twin hydraulic filters to replace the single power-pack filter
  • External power receptacle
  • Crew compartment sub-floor drains for torsion-bar pockets
  • Traverse mechanism upgrade of internal gearing and clutch and addition of hydraulic tubing and external clutch valve
  • Rewire air cleaner switch to shut off when vehicle in neutral
  • Add starter-circuit protection relay to prevent over-cranking
  • Move slave-start receptacle to driver compartment
  • Add protective covers over sensors mounted on engine hood

M109A5

M109A5 155mm Howitzer

Self-Propelled 155mm Howitzer

NSN 2350-01-281-1719


The M109A5 was an upgrade of the M109A3 to the M109A4 standard with additional features including the Reserve Component/Modified Armament System (RC/MAS) that, with the installation of the M284 cannon assembly and M182 gun mount upgraded the weapons to the A6 variant standard. US Fleet upgrades were completed in 1994 and exports began in 1998. The M109A5 fields upgraded components providing greater durability. The powertrain was upgraded with a higher output (440HP), low heat rejection (LHR) engine and an improved transmission (Allison ATD-XTG 411-4A) for increased mobility. A4 features such as fire suppression, an over-cranking protection device to prevent starter burnout, a 180A alternator that extends battery life, the elevation/equilibrium cylinder and turret traverse clutch assembly are re-designed to reduce failures, protective covers for the engine electrical sensors to prevent accidental damage, relocated and easily accessible filters improve hydraulic power pack filtration, easier to replace track pads and external road wheel lubrication points simplify maintenance. The suspension system was strengthened and an external NATO power receptacle was added to allow the M109A5 to be electrically powered by the M992 Field Artillery Ammunition Support Vehicle (FAASV).

The M109A5 variant is the the most advanced "factory" variant of the original M109 production series in use by non-U.S.A. Armed Forces.

M109A5+

M1095A+ 155mm Howitzer

Self-Propelled 155mm Howitzer

NSN 2350-01-281-1719 (Same as M109A5)


The M109A5+ is the designation given to field upgraded M109A5 variants. Many manufacturers have fielded system improvements since the M109A5 which are designed to be incorporated into the exported M109A5 vehicles providing improved mobility, communications, battlefield integration and fire control. NSN Center provides program management services, RESET and upgrade services for existing users of the M109A5 to provide M109A5+ capabilities including:

  • Fire Control Upgrade
  • Increased firing range of up to 36 km
  • Burst Firing Capability (3 Rounds in 15 Seconds)
  • Engine Upgrades and Improvement
  • Transmission Upgrades and Improvement
  • Suspension Upgrades
  • Track Upgrades
  • Communications Upgrades
  • Battlefield Data Management
  • Armor Augmentation
  • Driver and Commander Assistance Systems
  • Electrical System Upgrades (MIL-STD-1245A and better)
  • Maintenance Systems, Facilities and Logistics Improvement (Higher MTBF)
  • Crew Training Simulators

M109A6 Paladin

M109A6 Paladin - 155mm SP Howitzer

Self-Propelled 155mm Howitzer

NSN 2350-01-305-0028


The M109A5 Howitzer was the subject of several U.S. Army programs for improvement and sustainability ending in the merger of the Howitzer Improvement Program (HIP) and Howitzer Extended Life Program (HELP) into the M109A6 Paladin variant standard in 1989. The major improvements that define the A6 Paladin variant are:

  • Upgraded gun mount that accepts a 39 and 58 caliber 155mm cannon
  • Secure SINCGARS radios
  • Paladin Digital Fire-Control System (PDFCS)
  • Onboard diagnostic systems
  • Increased ammunition load
  • Additional armor: 5083 aluminum with composite spall liners and supplemental armor
  • Upgraded engine and transmission

M109A6 PIM

M109A6 Paladin Integrated Management (PIM) - 155mm SP Howitzer

Self-Propelled 155mm Howitzer

NSN TBD


The M109A6 PIM is the currently fielded variant of the M109 for the U.S. Army which integrates an upgraded M109A6 turret with a brand new chassis from BAE Systems borrowed from the M2/M3 Bradley Fighting Vehicle. This program, initiated in 2007, improves the viability and sustainability of the M109 fleet when integrated into Heavy Brigade Combat Teams (HBCT). The new powertrain and chassis allow the vehicle to maintain pace with other advanced heavy vehicles while provided spare parts commonality with newer generation vehicles.

The new all-welded aluminum armor chassis incorporates a Cummins 600-hp diesel engine and L-3 Combat Propulsion Systems HMPT-500 series automatic transmission. The new powerpack improves the power-to-weight ratio and top speed. The vehicle utilizes the final drives, torsion bars, road wheels, road arms and track from the Bradley infantry fighting vehicle. The upgraded electrical system includes a 70kW generator. A health and usage monitoring system (HUMS) is installed as standard. New in-arm rotary dampers improve performance. The chassis is longer than the original M109 providing greater internal volume. The M109A6 PIM can carry 43 155mm projectiles, including 17 M982 Excalibur precision-guided rounds. The new chassis increases the total weight by about 5% with additional system growth potential built-in. The driver is provided with cameras for improved situational awareness to the front and rear. The existing M109A6 turret is enhanced with a semi-automatic rammer and all-electric drives from the Non-Line-of-Sight Cannon (NLOS-C ). The crew is provided with individual spot cooling as well as standard cooling vests for operations in hot temperatures. The electric gun, ammunition handling components and air-conditioning system are powered by the Common Modular Power System (CMPS). This provides 35kW of 600VDC, which can be used for voltage conversion and can support other power loads required within the complex Paladin platform. The PIM turret rotates 80 deg left or right from center because of the new cabled power system which replaced the slip-ring. The PIM vehicle has a pivot-steer function so that when targets are beyond the traverse limit, the vehicle can slew to that target as fast as the original system could traverse its turret. The A6 PIM vehicle uses Bradley road arm assemblies, torsion bars and idler assemblies and has six roadwheel stations compared to the seven on previous vehicles. New double-pin, double-block 19.1" (485mm) wide XT-161 tracks replace the 14" (356mm) tracks on legacy vehicles. This significantly reduces ground pressure and increases the vehicle's mobility. The existing 155mm/39-caliber M284 gun is retained. A new digital fire-control system is installed and the modular artillery charge system (MACS) will replace bag-type charges. The M109A6 PIM can carry up to 42 conventional 155mm rounds and nine Excalibur rounds. It can fire the Excaliber rounds 25 mi (40 km) and conventional rounds about 19 mi (30 km). The PIM can fire four rounds per minute for three minutes and sustain one round per minute.

M109A7

M109A7 - 155mm SP Howitzer

NSN TBD


The latest M109 variant designed for the U.S. Army is the M109A7, formerly known as the M109A6 Paladin Integrated Management (PIM). The U.S. Army plans on procuring a fleet of 580 sets of M109A7 howitzers and M992A3 ammunition support vehicles. The first M109A6 and M992A2 vehicles were disassembled and reassembled to M109A7 and M992A3 standard as part of low-rate initial production beginning in summer 2014. Production deliveries began in April 2015.


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